Prostate cancer starts to grow in the prostate, which is a tiny gland in the shape of a walnut and is a component of a man's reproductive system. It is estimated that one in every nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of the disease. The majority of prostate cancers develop slowly and are contained within the prostate gland, where they may not pose a significant threat to the patient's health. However, while particular forms of prostate cancer develop slowly and may only require a limited amount of treatment or possibly none at all, other forms of the disease are aggressive and have the potential to spread swiftly.
Different types of prostate cancer
Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (malignant tumours). This kind of cancer starts in the cells of glands that make secretions. Rarely, the prostate can also get other kinds of cancer. Those are:
- Small cell carcinomas.
- Transitional cell carcinomas.
- Neuroendocrine tumours.
Our team of specialists is available to help you if you are experiencing any strange symptoms or are just curious about the disease “prostate cancer”. Sanarcare collects details about diagnostic and pathology services offered by various hospitals. With this site, we hope to make it easier for people to find clinics, hospitals, and other medical facilities for testing and treatment.
Causes of prostate cancer
Although the precise factors that lead to the development of prostate cancer are not fully understood, there are a number of things that can make your chance of acquiring the condition higher. Doctors know that prostate cancer starts when the DNA of the cells in the prostate changes. The instructions for what a cell should do are written in its DNA. Because of the changes, the cells grow and divide faster than normal cells do. When other cells would die, the abnormal cells keep living.
As the abnormal cells add up, they form a tumour that can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Over time, some abnormal cells can break off and move to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis.
Following are few of the causes:
Age: The risk goes up with age, and most cases are found in men over 50. ethnic group: black men are more likely to get prostate cancer than Asian men.
Family history: Having a brother or father who got prostate cancer before age 60 seems to make your chances of getting it higher. Having a close female relative who got breast cancer may also make your chances of getting prostate cancer higher, according to research.
Obesity: Recent research suggests there may be a link between obesity and prostate cancer, and a healthy diet and regular exercise may lower your risk of getting prostate cancer.
Diet: Scientists are still looking into the links between diet and prostate cancer, but there is some evidence that a diet high in calcium is linked to a higher risk of getting prostate cancer.
Do you know the symptoms of prostate cancer?
Most of the time, prostate cancer does not cause any symptoms. In rare cases, men may experience specific symptoms of advanced prostate cancer. But many men who don't have cancer also have these signs, so it's best to talk to a doctor about them before making any conclusions. Some of these symptoms are trouble getting the bladder to empty, blood in the urine, and pain in the bones.
Is it possible to prevent getting prostate cancer?
There are currently no well-defined strategies for preventing prostate cancer. There is some evidence, though it is not conclusive, that reducing your intake of fat and increasing your consumption of vegetables and fruits may help lower your chance of developing prostate cancer. It is critical to perform regular screenings that include both a physical exam and a Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test in order to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. In order to keep in excellent health and ward against disease in general, maintaining a nutritious diet and engaging in regular exercise are also essential.
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
The best way to find prostate cancer early is to get screened. If you have a normal chance of getting cancer, you will probably have your first prostate screening when you are 55. If you have a history of the disease in your family or if you are Black, your doctor may start testing you sooner. Most of the time, screening stops at age 70, but it can go on in certain situations.
Some ways to check for prostate cancer are:
Digital rectal exam: Your doctor puts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which is in front of the rectum. This is called a digital rectal exam. Cancer could be the cause of bumps or hard spots.
Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA): The prostate gland makes a protein called a protein-specific antigen (PSA). If PSA levels are high, it could be a sign of cancer. If you have BPH or prostatitis, your levels will also go up.
Biopsy: The only sure way to find out if someone has prostate cancer is to take a small piece of tissue with a needle and look for cancer cells. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology shows detailed images of the prostate.
Treatment options for prostate cancer
Some people never need treatment because their cancer grows slowly and doesn't spread. Most prostate cancer can be cured with treatment. Some options for treatment are:
With this method, you get screenings, scans, and biopsies every one to three years to check on the growth of cancer. Active surveillance works best if the cancer is only in the prostate, is growing slowly, and isn't causing any symptoms.
This sounds like active surveillance, but it is usually used for older or weaker patients. This method is similar to active surveillance in that there is no definitive treatment at the time of diagnosis. But testing is done much less often and is mostly about managing symptoms.
Brachytherapy is an internal form of radiation therapy in which radioactive seeds are put inside the prostate. This method helps keep the healthy tissue around it from being damaged.
External beam radiation therapy
In this type of treatment, a machine sends strong X-ray beams straight to the tumour. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a type of external radiation therapy that sends strong doses of radiation to the disease site.
If cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, your doctor may suggest systemic therapies. Chemotherapy, androgen deprivation hormone therapy, and immunotherapy are some of these treatments.
It is a newer type of treatment that focuses on just the part of the prostate where the cancer is. If cancer hasn't spread, you might be able to try this treatment. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), cryotherapy, laser ablation, and photodynamic therapy are all types of focal therapy.
With a prostatectomy, the prostate gland is removed because it is sick. Small cuts are made in the abdomen for laparoscopic prostatectomy and robotic radical prostatectomy. Both of these cancer-removal methods are less invasive than an open radical prostatectomy, which requires a larger cut in the abdomen.